European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences

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Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria

Received: 17 February 2023    Accepted: 11 July 2023    Published: 13 September 2023
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Abstract

Background: The use of medicinal plants as treatment options of human and animal diseases can be traced back in human history, and about ten percent of identified medicinal plants serve a pharmaceutical role because they have active chemical constituents such phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins and lignin. Ethiopia is a place rich in medicinal plants, though most studies in the region have only considered the individual effects of their extracts while under-exploring their combined effects. Objective: The objective of this research was to assess the synergistic antibacterial activity of crude extracts of leaves of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurnia aurea and Ocimum gratissimum collected from Bahir Dar town against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi by using methanol, acetone and chloroform as solvents. Methods: Extracts were prepared at a plant-to-solvent ratio of 50 g to 500 mL and then set to a concentration of 50 mg/mL by dissolving 100 mg of crude extract in 2 ml of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide in small cups, from which 100 µL was used for antibacterial assays using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration assays were assessed with the broth microdilution and overnight bacterial culture preparation techniques, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used for synergistic activity analysis. Results: Combinations of extracts showed relatively better effects against most test bacteria with inhibition zones reaching up to 23.00 ± 1.00 mm (Salmonella typhi) despite limited activity on both standard and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. The lowermost minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.125 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, and a few synergistic and many additive effects were recorded for different forms of combinations on different bacterial isolates. Conclusion: The combined use of extracts is relatively promising, though further work is required to clearly set the safety margins of combinations used in vivo, as this is the first report on all settings used here. The findings of this study provide scientific evidence for communities, pharmaceutical industries, and other concerned bodies regarding alternative formulations of phytochemicals for the relief of different physiological deviations, with the combined use of plants showing better performance.

DOI 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12
Published in European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences (Volume 9, Issue 3, June 2023)
Page(s) 38-46
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Antibacterial Effect, Calpurina Aurea, Croton Macrostachyus, Medicinal Plant, Ocimum Gratissimum

References
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    Ayichew Teshale, Nega Berhane, Wagaw Sendeku. (2023). Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria. European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, 9(3), 38-46. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12

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    ACS Style

    Ayichew Teshale; Nega Berhane; Wagaw Sendeku. Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria. Eur. J. Clin. Biomed. Sci. 2023, 9(3), 38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12

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    AMA Style

    Ayichew Teshale, Nega Berhane, Wagaw Sendeku. Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria. Eur J Clin Biomed Sci. 2023;9(3):38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12,
      author = {Ayichew Teshale and Nega Berhane and Wagaw Sendeku},
      title = {Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria},
      journal = {European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {38-46},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ejcbs.20230903.12},
      abstract = {Background: The use of medicinal plants as treatment options of human and animal diseases can be traced back in human history, and about ten percent of identified medicinal plants serve a pharmaceutical role because they have active chemical constituents such phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins and lignin. Ethiopia is a place rich in medicinal plants, though most studies in the region have only considered the individual effects of their extracts while under-exploring their combined effects. Objective: The objective of this research was to assess the synergistic antibacterial activity of crude extracts of leaves of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurnia aurea and Ocimum gratissimum collected from Bahir Dar town against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi by using methanol, acetone and chloroform as solvents. Methods: Extracts were prepared at a plant-to-solvent ratio of 50 g to 500 mL and then set to a concentration of 50 mg/mL by dissolving 100 mg of crude extract in 2 ml of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide in small cups, from which 100 µL was used for antibacterial assays using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration assays were assessed with the broth microdilution and overnight bacterial culture preparation techniques, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used for synergistic activity analysis. Results: Combinations of extracts showed relatively better effects against most test bacteria with inhibition zones reaching up to 23.00 ± 1.00 mm (Salmonella typhi) despite limited activity on both standard and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. The lowermost minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.125 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, and a few synergistic and many additive effects were recorded for different forms of combinations on different bacterial isolates. Conclusion: The combined use of extracts is relatively promising, though further work is required to clearly set the safety margins of combinations used in vivo, as this is the first report on all settings used here. The findings of this study provide scientific evidence for communities, pharmaceutical industries, and other concerned bodies regarding alternative formulations of phytochemicals for the relief of different physiological deviations, with the combined use of plants showing better performance.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Combined Antibacterial Effect of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurina aurea and Ocimum gratissimum Against Selected Clinical and Standard Pathogenic Bacteria
    AU  - Ayichew Teshale
    AU  - Nega Berhane
    AU  - Wagaw Sendeku
    Y1  - 2023/09/13
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12
    T2  - European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
    JF  - European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
    JO  - European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
    SP  - 38
    EP  - 46
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2575-5005
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ejcbs.20230903.12
    AB  - Background: The use of medicinal plants as treatment options of human and animal diseases can be traced back in human history, and about ten percent of identified medicinal plants serve a pharmaceutical role because they have active chemical constituents such phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins and lignin. Ethiopia is a place rich in medicinal plants, though most studies in the region have only considered the individual effects of their extracts while under-exploring their combined effects. Objective: The objective of this research was to assess the synergistic antibacterial activity of crude extracts of leaves of Croton macrostachyus, Calpurnia aurea and Ocimum gratissimum collected from Bahir Dar town against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi by using methanol, acetone and chloroform as solvents. Methods: Extracts were prepared at a plant-to-solvent ratio of 50 g to 500 mL and then set to a concentration of 50 mg/mL by dissolving 100 mg of crude extract in 2 ml of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide in small cups, from which 100 µL was used for antibacterial assays using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration assays were assessed with the broth microdilution and overnight bacterial culture preparation techniques, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used for synergistic activity analysis. Results: Combinations of extracts showed relatively better effects against most test bacteria with inhibition zones reaching up to 23.00 ± 1.00 mm (Salmonella typhi) despite limited activity on both standard and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. The lowermost minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.125 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, and a few synergistic and many additive effects were recorded for different forms of combinations on different bacterial isolates. Conclusion: The combined use of extracts is relatively promising, though further work is required to clearly set the safety margins of combinations used in vivo, as this is the first report on all settings used here. The findings of this study provide scientific evidence for communities, pharmaceutical industries, and other concerned bodies regarding alternative formulations of phytochemicals for the relief of different physiological deviations, with the combined use of plants showing better performance.
    VL  - 9
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Soddo University, Sodo, Ethiopia

  • Institute of Biotechnology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

  • Institute of Biotechnology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

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